It shows the first Australians spread rapidly before largely spending continuous time in distinct areas.
The research is an important step in learning more about ancestry prior to European settlement, the authors said.
It again confirmed that Aboriginal Australians descended from a single population that arrived 50,000 years ago from New Guinea, when it was joined to Australia.
Genetic mapThe research, published in the journal Nature, analysed 111 hair samples taken by anthropologists from across Australia in the early 20th Century.
The DNA allowed researchers to trace maternal ancestry through unique genetic material.
"What we've found is that we can see right the way back to the first colonisation of Australia by Aboriginal people," said lead author Prof Alan Cooper.-read more