At moment my posts on various blogs may be just a link to the headline and not my normal standard so I just like to say I am sorry. Hopefully when my computer is fixed all will be alright with world or unless I can find a better copy and paste app on play store.
Saturday, 29 April 2017
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DNA of extinct humans found in caves
28 April 2017
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Vindija Cave, CroatiaImage copyrightMPI FOR EVO ANTHRO / J. KRAUSE
The remains of Neanderthals had previously been found at Vindija Cave in Croatia
The DNA of extinct humans can be retrieved from sediments in caves - even in the absence of skeletal remains.
Researchers found the genetic material in sediment samples collected from seven archaeological sites.
The remains of ancient humans are often scarce, so the new findings could help scientists learn the identity of inhabitants at sites where only artefacts have been found.
The results are described in Science.
Antonio Rosas, a scientist at Spain's Natural Science Museum in Madrid, said: "This work represents an enormous scientific breakthrough.
"We can now tell which species of hominid occupied a cave and on which particular stratigraphic level, even when no bone or skeletal remains are present."
The researchers also found the DNA of many animals - some of them extinct
"We know that several components of sediments can bind DNA," said lead researcher Matthias Meyer of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany.
"We therefore decided to investigate whether hominin DNA may survive in sediments at archaeological sites known to have been occupied by ancient hominins."
The team collaborated with researchers excavating at seven dig sites in Belgium, Croatia, France, Russia and Spain.
They collected sediment samples covering a time span from 14,000 to 550,000 years ago.
El Sidrón, SpainImage copyrightMAX-PLANCK-GESELLSCHAFT
Neanderthal DNA was retrieved from sediments in El Sidrón cave, northern Spain
Back in the lab, they fished out tiny fragments of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) - genetic material from the mitochondria, which act as the "powerhouses" of biological cells. Even sediment samples that had been stored at room temperature for years yielded DNA.
Dr Meyer and his team members were able to identify the DNA of various animals belonging to 12 mammalian families, including extinct species such as the woolly mammoth, woolly rhinoceros, cave bear and cave hyena.
The scientists looked specifically for DNA from ancient humans in the samples.
"From the preliminary results, we suspected that in most of our samples, DNA from other mammals was too abundant to detect small traces of human DNA," said co-author Viviane Slon, from the Max Planck Institute in Leipzig, Germany.
"We then switched strategies and started targeting specifically DNA fragments of human origin."
Sediment sampleImage copyrightMAX-PLANCK-GESELLSCHAFT
DNA can be extracted even when the sediments have been stored at room temperature
The team members managed to retrieve DNA from Neanderthals in the cave sediments of four archaeological sites, including in layers where no human skeletal remains have been discovered.
In addition, they found new samples of Denisovan DNA in sediments from Denisova Cave in Russia.
"The technique could increase the sample size of the Neanderthal and Denisovan mitochondrial genomes, which until now were limited by the number of preserved remains," co-author Spanish National Research Council scientist Carles Lalueza-Fox told the AFP news agency.
"And it will probably be possible to even recover substantial parts of nuclear genomes."
Svante Pääbo, director of the Evolutionary Genetics department at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, commented: "By retrieving hominin DNA from sediments, we can detect the presence of hominin groups at sites and in areas where this cannot be achieved with other methods.
"This shows that DNA analyses of sediments are a very useful archaeological procedure, which may become routine in the future."
Monday, 24 April 2017
I have enjoyed and survived being eaten watching the cult films of sharknado and cant wait for the next one in series
Sharknado (film series)
Directed by Anthony C. Ferrante
Produced by David Michael Latt
Written by Thunder Levin
Distributed by Syfy
1: July 11, 2013
2: July 30, 2014
3: July 22, 2015
4: July 31, 2016
5: August 6, 2017
Country United States
Sharknado is the name of a series of disaster horror comedy sci-fi films released by Syfy starting in 2013. It has since been expanded into video games and comics. A spin-off film, Sharknado: Heart of Sharkness, was released in 2015.
The series stars Ian Ziering and Tara Reid as Fin and April Shepard, a husband and wife who continue to encounter "sharknadoes", tornadoes filled with sharks, wherever they go.
Sharknado (2013) Edit
Main article: Sharknado
A freak cyclone hits Los Angeles causing man-eating sharks to be scooped up in water spouts and flood the city with shark-infested seawater. Bar-owner and surfer Fin (Ian Ziering) sets out with his friends to rescue his estranged wife, April (Tara Reid), and their teenage daughter, Claudia, before the "sharknado" reaches them.
Sharknado 2: The Second One (2014) Edit
Main article: Sharknado 2: The Second One
While Fin and April are in New York City to promote April's book, How to Survive a Sharknado and Other Unnatural Disasters, about the Los Angeles sharknado, the city is hit by a severe storm causing new "sharknadoes" to emerge.
Sharknado 3: Oh Hell No! (2015) Edit
Main article: Sharknado 3: Oh Hell No!
Following the events of the previous film, Fin and April have remarried and are expecting another child. For his heroics in the "sharknado" battles in Los Angeles and New York, Fin is in Washington, D.C. to receive an award from the president. However, when he is there he encounters a new "sharknado" which begins to make its way down the "Feast Coast" to Florida.
Sharknado: The 4th Awakens (2016) Edit
Main article: Sharknado: The 4th Awakens
Sharknado 4 was confirmed to follow upon Sharknado 3's premiere. Sharknado 3 concludes with a cliffhanger regarding whether or not April is killed by falling wreckage. An ad after the film promotes a Twitter campaign offering fans the chance to decide her fate with the hashtags "#AprilLives" or "#AprilDies", with the results revealed at the start of Sharknado 4, which first aired on Syfy on July 31, 2016. Ian Ziering, Tara Reid, Ryan Newman, and David Hasselhoff reprise their roles from previous films. New cast members include: Tommy Davidson as Aston Reynolds, playboy tech billionaire and Astro-X; Cody Linley replacing Chuck Hittinger as Matt Shepard; Imani Hakim as Gabrielle, a soldier and Matt's girlfriend; Gary Busey as Wilford Wexler, April's rich father; Cheryl Tiegs as Raye Shepard, Fin's mother; Masiela Lusha as Gemini, Fin's cousin.;
The title and poster of the film is an homage to Star Wars: The Force Awakens.
Sharknado 5... Earth 0 (2017) Edit
Sharknado 5... Earth 0 was confirmed in October 2016, and is set to be released on August 6, 2017. Ian Ziering and Tara Reid have been confirmed to reprise their roles as Fin Shepard and April Wexler. Cassie Scerbo has also been reported to be returning for the fifth installment. Filming occurred in more than 5 countries, including the UK, Australia and Bulgaria
Sharknado: Heart of Sharkness (2015) Edit
The mockumentary tells the story of David Moore, the filmmaker who first dreamed of “sharks in a tornado” and brought on disaster by using real sharks. It was written and directed by Jeremy Wagener, and released in October 6, 2015 on video on demand.
Los Angeles, California is the setting of Sharknado and Lavalantula
New York, New York is the setting of Sharknado 2: The Second One
Riverdale is where Archie v. Sharknado takes place
Washington, DC and Orlando, Florida are the settings of Sharknado 3: Oh Hell No!
Las Vegas, Nevada is the setting of Sharknado: The 4th Awakens
Miami, Florida is the setting of 2 Lava 2 Lantula
Recurring cast and characters Edit
This table only includes characters which have appeared in more than one film in the series.
A dark grey cell indicates the character was not in the film.
Characters Main Films
Sharknado Sharknado 2:
The Second One Sharknado 3:
Oh Hell No! Sharknado:
The 4th Awakens
Finley Allan "Fin" Shepard Ian Ziering
April Dawn Wexler Shepard Tara Reid
Claudia Shepard Aubrey Peeples Ryan Newman
Nova Clarke Cassie Scerbo Cassie Scerbo
Matt Shepard Chuck Hittinger Cody Linley
Martin Brody Mark McGrath
Gilbert Grayson Shepard David Hasselhoff
For more details on the reception of each film, see the "Reception" section on each film's article.
Film Release date U.S. viewers
(millions) 18-49 rating Budget Ref(s)
Sharknado July 11, 2013 1.37 N/A $2 million 
Sharknado 2: The Second One July 30, 2014 3.87 1.6 $1.5–2 million 
Sharknado 3: Oh Hell No! July 22, 2015 2.81 0.9 $2.4 million 
Sharknado: The 4th Awakens July 31, 2016 2.77 0.8 $3 million 
Critical response Edit
Film Rotten Tomatoes Metacritic
Sharknado 82% (17 reviews) N/A
Sharknado 2: The Second One 59% (27 reviews) 50 (17 reviews)
Sharknado 3: Oh Hell No! 34% (32 reviews) 53 (19 reviews)
Sharknado: The 4th Awakens 18% (11 reviews) 35 (7 reviews)
Average 48% 46
Other media Edit
Sharknado: The Video Game Edit
Main article: Sharknado: The Video Game
Sharknado: The Video Game is a 2014 endless running video game developed by Other Ocean Interactive and published by Majesco Entertainment. It was based on Sharknado 2: The Second One and was released for iOS on July 25, 2014.
How to Survive a Sharknado Edit
How to Survive a Sharknado and Other Unnatural Disasters: Fight Back When Monsters and Mother Nature Attack is a book by Andrew Shaffer, a real-life version of the book-within-the-movie Sharknado 2.
Archie vs. Sharknado Edit
Archie vs. Sharknado is a one-shot comic book simultaneously published by Archie Comics in July 22, 2015 as a tie-in to Sharknado 3: Oh Hell No!. It deals with Riverdale being hit by a storm of sharknadoes and Archie and the gang having to deal with them as it makes its way down the "Feast Coast". The one-shot was written by series director Anthony C. Ferrante, with art by longtime Archie artist Dan Parent. The comic book received an average score of 7.2/10 based on 15 critical reviews according to review aggregator Comic Book Roundup.
Related media Edit
Z Nation Edit
Main article: Z Nation
Roberta Warren, an ex-National guard and main character in the television series Z Nation (played by Kellita Smith), makes an appearance in Sharknado 3: Oh Hell No! with a lower rank, establishing the Sharknado series as a prequel to Z Nation.
Ian Ziering appears as Fin in the 2015 film Lavalantula.
Steve Guttenberg appears as Colton West, the lead character from the Lavalantula franchise, in Sharknado 4: The 4th Awakens.
^ a b Gilyadov, Alex (April 7, 2017). "Syfy Sets Summer Premiere Dates for Sharknado 5, Dark Matter, Killjoys, Wynonna Earp and More". IGN. Retrieved April 10, 2017.
^ Holmes, Linda (July 12, 2012). "'Sharknado' Dares To Ask: Is It Going To Rain Giant Man-Eating Sharks?". NPR. Retrieved July 12, 2012.
^ "'Sharknado 3' to Take on the 'Feast Coast'". Screen Rant.
^ "Sharknado 4 confirmed by Syfy as third film premieres". BBC News. July 23, 2014. Retrieved July 25, 2015.
^ Wagmeister, Elizabeth (July 22, 2015). "'Sharknado 4' Announced: Director Anthony C. Ferrante Teases Details on Next Sequel". Variety. Retrieved July 25, 2015.
^ Mitovich, Matt Webb; Mitovich, Matt Webb (March 9, 2016). "Sharknado 4 Casts Gary Busey (as Tara Reid's Dad), Cheryl Tiegs, Four Others". tvline.com. Retrieved February 22, 2017.
^ Cooper, Gael (May 4, 2016). "'Sharknado' turns to the shark side with Star Wars-style poster". CNET. Retrieved June 28, 2016.
^ Foywonder (October 24, 2016). "Sharknado 5 Gets a Title, Artwork, and Plot Synopsis – But Is the Earth Ready?". Dread Central. Retrieved January 4, 2017.
^ Gelman, Vlada (February 2, 2017). "TVLine Items: Sharknado 5 Is a Go, Fosters Star Joins This Is Us and More". TVLine. Retrieved February 6, 2017.
^ "SHARKNADO: HEART OF SHARKNESS". theasylum.cc. The Asylum. Retrieved August 24, 2016.
^ De Moraes, Lisa (July 12, 2013). "Syfy 'Sharknado' Attracts Average Of 1.369 Million Viewers – Mostly Journalists And Celebrities". Deadline. Retrieved July 12, 2013.
^ Claire Suddath. "Sharknado 2: Syfy's Bid for B-Movie Domination - Businessweek". Businessweek.com.
^ Pennington, Gail (July 31, 2014). "'Sharknado 2' smashes ratings records". St. Louis Post Dispatch. Retrieved July 25, 2015.
^ "'Sharknado 3' Ratings Down From Last Year's 'Sharknado 2'". Variety. Retrieved October 30, 2015.
^ Porter, Rick (August 2, 2016). "Sunday cable ratings: 'Sharknado 4' slips, 'Power' up week to week". TV by the Numbers. Retrieved July 12, 2016.
^ "Sharknado (2013) - Rotten Tomatoes". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved October 30, 2015.
^ "Sharknado 2: The Second One (2014) - Rotten Tomatoes". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved October 30, 2015.
^ "Sharknado 2: The Second One - Season 1 Reviews - Metacritic". Metacritic. Retrieved August 12, 2016.
^ "Sharknado 3: Oh Hell No! (2015) - Rotten Tomatoes". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved October 30, 2015.
^ "Sharknado 3: Oh Hell No! - Season 1 Reviews - Metacritic". Metacritic. Retrieved August 12, 2016.
^ "Sharknado: The 4th Awakens (2016) - Rotten Tomatoes". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved August 12, 2016.
^ "Sharknado: The 4th Awakens - Season 1 Reviews - Metacritic". Metacritic. Retrieved August 12, 2016.
^ "Sharknado: The Video Game Announced". IGN. Retrieved August 8, 2014.
^ "SHARKNADO HITS RIVERDALE THIS JULY IN ARCHIE VS. SHARKNADO". archiecomics.com.
^ "[comicbookroundup.com/comic-books/reviews/archie-comics/archie-vs-sharknado/1 Archie Vs Sharknado]," Comic Book Roundup. Retrieved February 21, 2017
Last edited 5 days ago by ⵆ
Sharknado 2: The Second One
2014 made-for-TV disaster film
Sharknado 3: Oh Hell No!
Sharknado: The 4th Awakens
2016 film by Anthony C. Ferrante
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0 unless otherwise noted.
Sunday, 23 April 2017
Yes people we have another vote this year this time a general election on 8th June 2017.We can look forward to all the bull from the mps of different parties each telling us thier propaganda and getting nasty via the media me myself says via anarchy.
My front garden is small time famous amongst the smaller children of Holsworthy as we have 2 sheep ornaments who are referred by then as shaun the sheep. Keeping these sheep company are 2 elephant's, a family of deers,2 meerkats ,frog, crocodile, fox,2 birds,bulldog and solar powered lights so it good to see per smile as there walk by.
The sonic screwdriver used by Dr,Who has gone into the the Oxford English dictionary. The entry description says sonic screwdriver is an electronic device which uses sound waves to perform mechanical and technology functions. The sonic screwdriver first appeared in a Dr Who episode called Fury from the deep in which the second doctor Patrick Troughton who used it to open a hatch on a gas pipeline.
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